Appearance[ edit ] The normal colour of uranium glass ranges from yellow to green depending on the oxidation state and concentration of the metal ions, although this may be altered by the addition of other elements as glass colorants. Uranium glass also fluoresces bright green under ultraviolet light and can register above background radiation on a sufficiently sensitive Geiger counter , although most pieces of uranium glass are considered to be harmless and only negligibly radioactive. Specialized collectors still define vaseline glass as transparent or semi-transparent uranium glass in this specific color. Vaseline glass is now used as a synonym for any uranium glass, especially in the United States, but this usage is not universal. The term is sometimes carelessly applied to other types of glass based on certain aspects of their superficial appearance in normal light, regardless of actual uranium content which requires a blacklight test to verify the characteristic green fluorescence. In the United Kingdom and Australia , the term vaseline glass can be used to refer to any type of translucent glass. Even within the United States, the “vaseline” description is sometimes applied to any type of translucent glass with a greasy surface luster. It is not to be confused with Jadeite. Several other common subtypes of uranium glass have their own nicknames: Burmese glass opaque glass that shades from pink to yellow However, like “vaseline”, the terms “custard” and “jad e ite” are often applied on the basis of superficial appearance rather than uranium content.
What is Uranium?
Rubidium—strontium method The radioactive decay of rubidium 87Rb to strontium 87Sr was the first widely used dating system that utilized the isochron method. Because rubidium is concentrated in crustal rocks, the continents have a much higher abundance of the daughter isotope strontium compared with the stable isotopes.
A ratio for average continental crust of about 0. This difference may appear small, but, considering that modern instruments can make the determination to a few parts in 70, , it is quite significant. Dissolved strontium in the oceans today has a value of 0. Thus, if well-dated, unaltered fossil shells containing strontium from ancient seawater are analyzed, changes in this ratio with time can be observed and applied in reverse to estimate the time when fossils of unknown age were deposited.
Widespread use of uranium was found in colored glass, enamels and ceramics produced between the s and s. Simple tests can be used to determine the presence of uranium in objects. This knowledge can be useful for authentication purposes; the presence of uranium may also compromise thermoluminescence dating of ancient objects stored nearby.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.
However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.
If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found. I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions.
Even the creationist accounts that I have read do not adequately treat these issues.
Inside the Conservation Lab: Curing “diseased” uranium glass
Identifying any antique glass is simple. First, see if the glass is marked, finding a mark is the first thing to look for when buying ANY antique, period. Many times the mark may be very faint, so use the reflection of the light you are using to aid you. If you’ve found a mark, great!
Dating from circa to , the urn contains natural uranium, which gives the glass its beautiful green color. Uranium glass often fluoresces alluringly under ultraviolet light, which makes for a fun party trick while entertaining guests.
Two to three feet tall, and perfectly formed and proportioned no midget syndrome or deformed body parts. Perfectly formed human skeletons between 14 and 16 feet tall have been dug out of the fossil beds in the BOTTOM of the Grand Canyon in geological strata that the theory of evolution can’t explain their existence in. Incidentally, the Bible also records races of giants – remember Goliath at roughly nine feet tall? Other skeletons of these giants have been unearthed on every single continent as well.
Just google “Giant Skeletons” for pics for yourself, if you don’t believe me Some are apparently hoaxes, but ALL of them??? The nuclear war skewed the radiological dating standards but no one either realizes or will admit it. But the point is this. Generally speaking, the bigger a race is, the better its chances of survival, at least according to evolution LOL.
So why are all the big guys gone, and us little people still here? They were bigger, stronger, smarter think how much more thinking grey matter they had compared to us! We now also have pictures and even some likely skeletons of the Yeti, Big Foot, Sasquatch, and other forest dwelling humans, remnants of other human races that are now also nearly extinct or are.
Uranium: the essentials
Share For many glass collectors, the only color that matters is Vaseline. Vaseline glass gets its oddly urinous color from radioactive uranium, which causes it to glow under a black light. Well, you just bought yourself four tumblers full of radioactive beta-waves. Go ahead and fill those tumblers with orange juice or milk, then serve these wholesome beverages to your adorable children.
In the field of fission-track dating, uranium fission tracks became applied for the age determination of natural glasses and induced U fission track counting in glass .
As always, if you have something radioactive and in need of a good home, I buy and trade all the time. Uranium-glazed artistic pottery is hard to come by, in contrast to the mass-produced and mass-collected Fiestaware and similar. Here are two examples of handmade ceramics. Especially interesting is a vase made in left that is representative of the work of crystalline-glaze artist William Melstrom , who has a studio in Austin, Texas photo courtesy of Mr. Melstrom is one of very few contemporary artists who have gone to the lengths required nowadays to work with uranium.
His adventuresome report on obtaining uranium compounds in France to formulate his glazes is a must-read. These raw ceramic underglazes containing uranium are a gift from William Melstrom, who made the vase pictured above. Before Melstrom owned them, they were in the possession of a radiation safety officer at the Texas Department of State Health Services, slated for official disposal as radioactive waste.
Because so few artists use or even know about uranium glazes now, old bottles such as these sometimes present surprise disposal problems when studios are cleaned out. The uranium concentration is through the roof: Some other interesting properties of uranium glass are dramatically demonstrated with this example.
8 Essential Facts About Uranium
The company’s facility was known as the Black Cat from all the carbon dust. Collins, a native of Salisbury, Maryland, had been working in the decorating department of the Ohio Flint Glass Company when this opportunity arose. Collins enlisted the help of Mr. Good, one building, two day-tanks, and 50 employees, Mr. Production was expanded with the purchase of another day-tank. Just when everything seemed to be going well, tragedy struck the company in when the Black Cat was reduced to ashes by a tremendous fire.
jars at his Enterprise Glass Co. in – again probably only for a year, although the timing is less certain, and Flaccus may have continued either machine or hand production of the Vaseline jars – or both – for a few more years. As with the West Virginia glass .
Uranium What do we know about uranium? Well, uranium is the heaviest naturally occurring element on earth. It is a metal, like all other metals, except that it had no commercial value before the mid-twentieth century. Until the last fifty years it was produced only as a byproduct. Thus the entire history of the mining of uranium has taken place during my lifetime. Moreover, a great deal of it has occurred in my homeland, Canada, which was the first country to produce and process uranium as such.
The first uranium processed by Canada was used to produce nuclear explosives for the atomic bombs dropped at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Indeed, the beginning of the nuclear weapons program marked the beginning of the uranium industry.
Uranium: historical information
See Article History Glass, an inorganic solid material that is usually transparent or translucent as well as hard, brittle, and impervious to the natural elements. Glass has been made into practical and decorative objects since ancient times, and it is still very important in applications as disparate as building construction , housewares, and telecommunications.
It is made by cooling molten ingredients such as silica sand with sufficient rapidity to prevent the formation of visible crystals. Glass is treated in detail in a number of articles.
For four generations, the Boyd Family practiced the art of pressed glass making and passing their family formulas for glass colors down from father to son. ***** Boyd Glass enjoyed 36 years of successful glassmaking. I started out as a barber and Sue worked in the produce department with the Kroger Company. During those years, we raised two children.
What is Depression Glass? Basically, this is a catch-all phrase for a general type of inexpensive glassware, in clear or colors, that was sold or given away as premiums during the late s into the early s. Much of so-called Depression glass for sale on online auction sites is actually reproduction glass, made in Asia during the last few years, even being imported today!
Large quantities of true Depression glass was made, by about 20 different glass companies, and virtually all of these manufacturers were located in the Midwest or eastern United States. The most common and popular colors produced were light to medium green, pink, and amber usually a light yellow-amber , along with clear glass. Colors that were made in lesser quantities, and thus are harder to find, include amethyst, true yellow canary , cobalt blue, opaque black may appear intense purple when held to the light , jadeite an opaque or translucent green , white milkglass, and red.
The great majority of the green Depression-era glass contains very small quantities of uranium, which causes the glass to glow a fluorescent green under an ultraviolet light blacklight. Any additional info appreciated! The most important companies to produce Depression glassware include: Much of this type of glass was given away as premiums, as a marketing ploy to help increase sales of a product or service. Small saucers or tumblers might be included inside a box of oatmeal, or given away at a gas station with a gasoline fill-up.
Hazel Atlas Glass Company
Commercial-grade uranium can be produced through the reduction of uranium halides with alkali or alkaline earth metals. Very pure uranium can be produced through the thermal decomposition of uranium halides on a hot filament. Owners and operators of U.
Identifying Fenton Glass Company Pieces Identifying Fenton Glass pieces can sometimes be a little difficult as not all pieces are marked, however there are some tips that help to identify this American Companies work and sometimes even date it.
The International History Project Date: Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils preserved bones of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts—items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry. From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life.
Archaeology is an important field of anthropology, which is the broad study of human culture and biology. Archaeologists concentrate their studies on past societies and changes in those societies over extremely long periods of time. However, archaeology is distinct from paleontology and studies only past human life. Archaeology also examines many of the same topics explored by historians.
But unlike history—the study of written records such as government archives, personal correspondence, and business documents—most of the information gathered in archaeology comes from the study of objects lying on or under the ground Archaeologists refer to the vast store of information about the human past as the archaeological record.
The archeological record encompasses every area of the world that has ever been occupied by humans, as well as all of the material remains contained in those areas. Archaeologists study the archaeological record through field surveys and excavations and through the laboratory study of collected materials. Many of the objects left behind by past human societies are not present in the archaeological record because they have disintegrated over time.